• Users Online: 201
  • Print this page
  • Email this page

Table of Contents
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 16-22

The effect of 8 weeks of combined yoga and rehabilitation training on salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting

1 Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
2 Rajaie Cardiovascular Medical and Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Date of Submission26-Feb-2020
Date of Decision14-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance23-Mar-2020
Date of Web Publication24-Apr-2020

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Farshad Ghazalian
Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/rcm.rcm_4_20

Rights and Permissions

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of combined rehabilitation and yoga training on salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol in patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 20 CABG patients were randomly divided into two groups of cardiac rehabilitation training group (CRT, n = 10) and combined training group (yoga-cardiac rehabilitation) (computed tomography [CT], n = 10). After initial clinical evaluation, exercise test, and salivation with 12 h fasting, individuals were referred to the rehabilitation ward of Shahid Rajaie Heart Hospital in Tehran and performed their exercise program for 8 weeks and three sessions per week then their evaluations were made again. A dependent t-test was used for intra-group changes and an independent t-test was used to compare the two groups at a significant level of 0.05. Results: The CT group showed a significant effect on salivary cortisol (P = 0.028), but these interventions did not show a significant effect on salivary alpha-amylase (P = 0.193). Furthermore, CRT alone had a significant effect on salivary cortisol indices (P = 0.011), there was no significant difference between groups (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: The results showed that combined yoga and rehabilitation training had beneficial effects on the salivary levels of the stress factors that have been studied. Therefore, this type of rehabilitation exercise is recommended for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease.

Keywords: Cardiac rehabilitation, cardiovascular disease, salivary alpha-amylase, salivary cortisol, yoga

How to cite this article:
Fakharirad F, Ghazalian F, Nikbakht H, Lotfian S, Nikpajouh A. The effect of 8 weeks of combined yoga and rehabilitation training on salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Res Cardiovasc Med 2020;9:16-22

How to cite this URL:
Fakharirad F, Ghazalian F, Nikbakht H, Lotfian S, Nikpajouh A. The effect of 8 weeks of combined yoga and rehabilitation training on salivary levels of alpha-amylase and cortisol in patients after coronary artery bypass grafting. Res Cardiovasc Med [serial online] 2020 [cited 2022 Oct 4];9:16-22. Available from: https://www.rcvmonline.com/text.asp?2020/9/1/16/283156

  Introduction Top

The effects and increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are largely driven by economic changes, social structure, lifestyle, and a parallel increase in life expectancy in the 20th century.[1] Many risk factors for CVD have been identified, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity, tobacco use, alcohol abuse, obesity, and mental stress.[2],[3] These behavioral risk factors are responsible for 80% of all cases of coronary artery disease and stroke. In addition, psychological stress has caused undesirable changes in autonomic sound that are important for cardiovascular risks but are modifiable.[4],[5]

Recent studies have displayed that the cardioprotective effects of rehabilitation programs may lead to improved regulation of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). For example, in a study conducted by Malfatto et al.,[6] the short-term effects of exercise were examined in 22 patients after myocardial infarction. The researchers proposed that 8 weeks of exercise training could regulate cardiovascular autonomic function by increasing parasympathetic tone, which is known to be associated with better cardiovascular outcomes.[7]

In a review study by Besnier et al., the effect of exercise training on modulating the ANS was examined. Patients with CVD exhibited autonomic abnormalities, including sympathetic activation and vagal withdrawal, leading to fatal accidents. This article considers sympathetic vagal balance as an essential element in the management of patients with CVD who benefit from a cardiac rehabilitation program. In general, cardiac rehabilitation programs include continuous aerobic exercise and low-intensity exercise. Other forms of activity including high-intensity intermittent exercise, respiratory exercises, relaxation, and electrical stimulation of the skin can improve vagal sympathetic balance and should be included in cardiac rehabilitation programs to optimize individual health outcomes. Overall, the results suggested that exercise training, along with other nonpharmacological strategies, could have a positive effect on the ANS by increasing vagal oscillations and decreasing sympathetic tone.[8]

There is developmental evidence that the hypothalamic- pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a role in the progression of CVD. The HPA axis is an important component of the neuroendocrine system that controls stress response and some important physical functions. Cortisol is the end product of the HPA axis and it affects the number of factors associated with the causes of CVD.

Few studies have been performed on the effects of changing daily cortisol rhythm on cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with CVD. Therefore, the relationship between daily preoperative cortisol and clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) has been investigated. The daily cortisol gradient before surgery appears to be associated with higher rates of future heart events and mortality in the years following CABG.[9]

The HPA and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) systems can be considered as two important stress response factors. One of the two branches of the ANS is the SNS. In recent literature, sex addicts anonymous is often referred to as the SNS activity index, or more precisely the medullary adrenal medullary system (sympatho-adrenomedullary-axis), which is responsible for the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. According to the results of the study by Nater et al., we conclude that the measurement of salivary alpha-amylase may be an additional useful tool for the measurement of biological stress factors because it is not related to other markers such as catecholamines or cortisol.[10]

Evidence from some research suggests that specific yoga techniques may improve mental and physical health by reducing the regulation of the HPA axis and the SNS. The HPA and SNS axis leads to a cascade of physiological, behavioral, and psychological effects in response to physical or psychological need (stressors), mainly due to the release of cortisol and catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine). This response results in the amount of energy needed to combat stressors through the classic fight-or-flight syndrome.

In a study, Sieverdes et al. found that hatha yoga had beneficial changes in blood pressure and decrease in salivary alpha-amylase, in prehypertensive adolescents.[11] On the other hand, yoga as an anti-stress effect on these pathways and modulating sympathetic pathways and the HPA can be considered as secondary prevention of CVD. Therefore, cardiac rehabilitation exercises have been effective, but traditional rehabilitation is not working for these patients, and many researchers are looking for new ways of rehabilitation which nowadays patients are more inclined to do so and are not as elusive as traditional remedies, according to studies of secondary prevention of these diseases, often of psychological and stress origin.

In general, various studies have been conducted on the effects of yoga and rehabilitation on coronary artery disease patients, and some contradictory results have been obtained as some results indicated a meaningful increase in curing of different factors in the disease the others found that these factors did not change significantly. However, little is known about the interactive effects of these two exercises, and their interactive effect on secondary prevention of CVD and sudden death remains unclear. On the other hand, there has been no research comparing the effects of rehabilitation practice with combined rehabilitation and yoga practice.

  Methods Top


The present study is a randomized controlled clinical trial with pretest and posttest design (clinical trial number IRCT20180728040615N1). Since this study was performed in Shahid RajaieHeart Center in Tehran, prior to the beginning of the research process, it was coordinated with the officials of Shahid Rajaie Cardiovascular Center and Rehabilitation Unit of Tehran Heart Surgery Center and then patients who underwent surgeries of CABG in the first 3 months of the year 97 were invited. In order to carry out this research, the Ethics Committee for Biological Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences of Tehran Azad University of Medical Sciences (IR.IAU.SRB.REC.1396.97) was first approved.

Study design

In order to collect the sample from the target community, details of the plan including goals, benefits, and course length were explained for patients first by telephone or in-person with patients referring to the rehabilitation ward of Shahid Rajaie Hospital for consultation to be invited to attend the briefing if they agreed. Initial clinical evaluations (history, previous history of CVD, clinical examinations and diagnostic measures of electrocardiogram (ECG), echocardiography, and exercise testing) were performed by a specialist physician. According to the sports medicine physician's opinion and the inclusion criteria, eventually, 20 patients who were eligible and had no motor inhibition were selected. Inclusion criteria were: patients who had undergone at least 1 month of surgery and were in phase 2 discharge, age ranged from 40 to 75 years, the patient was not a professional athlete and had no exercise program in the past 6 months. He did not participate regularly and did not participate in any other exercise program while smoking. Exclusion criteria were: restrictive exercise conditions (neurological, muscular, and skeletal) during the study, patients with hypertension, ventricular arrhythmia, unstable angina, and aortic valve disease, as well as patients with gastric ulcers and stomach discomfort, generally, heart problems that prohibit physical activity, changing the dosage, type, or discontinuation of the medications used in the study samples or patients taking nerve or sedative medications. They used to eat. Two days before the beginning of the training plan, the individuals were present at the rehabilitation center to take appropriate measures including height and weight measurement, exercise test, oral hygiene, and dental hygiene. Prior to grouping each individual, a modified Bruce standardized test strip was performed. Cardiac response to the test was monitored continuously during the test using a 12-derivative ECG. Blood pressure was also measured manually at the end of each phase of the test. The test continued to the extent of fatigue and voluntary helplessness. Pretest heart rate, pretest, and 1–3 min' recovery after exercise test were measured and recorded in sitting position. On the 2nd day at 8 o'clock in the hospital rehab unit to receive saliva with 12 h fasting and saliva were taken in saliva collection tubes. All tests were performed on patients before and after 8 weeks of the exercise protocol and were statistically analyzed.

Then, in order to match people into two groups (yoga-rehabilitation group and rehabilitation group), patients were randomly divided into two groups through using the information obtained including age, leap rate above 35%, comorbidities, etc., Patients were randomly divided into two groups of rehabilitation (or cardiac rehabilitation training [CRT] [n = 10]) and combined group (yoga-rehabilitation), (or computed tomography [CT] [n = 10]).[12],[13],[14],[15] In order to be blind at this stage, the names of the individuals were put in envelopes and coded by one person (other than anchors) in the control (rehabilitation) and experimental (combination training) groups. The cases were randomly divided. Yoga exercises were performed before the patients were administered by an experienced yoga instructor in the presence of a cardiologist to be approved or adjusted if needed [Table 1]. In addition, all health-care practitioners are present alongside patients to prevent any accidents and maintain balance. Chairs, towels, mattresses, and cushions are also used to comfort and facilitate the movements of the yoga group. Individuals who stopped attending for any reason were excluded from the study (CRT group n = 7 and CT group n = 7). Finally, after completing the 8-week exercise protocol, all variables measured in the pretest were measured and compared again. It should be noted that all tests before and after entering this study were performed on the basis of all ethical principles and were completely voluntary during the study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery.
Table 1: Summary of the training protocol

Click here to view

All individuals were evaluated for oral hygiene by cortisol and alpha-amylase enzymes. Salivary samples were collected after at least 12 h of nocturnal fasting after awakening in salivary plastic tubes and immediately centrifuged at the Shahid Rajaie Heart Center Laboratory in Tehran for 10 min and 4,000,000 rpm. It was stored at − 70°C until transfer to the laboratory for data analysis.[16] In this study, the alpha-amylase enzyme was measured through saliva at 20 U/L–6000U/L with a sensitivity of 1.95 IU/ml. In this study, cortisol hormone levels were measured in saline at a range of 0.5 ng/ml → 200 ng/ml with a sensitivity of 0.25 ng/ml.


In order to determine the appropriate statistical method, the baseline levels of variables were compared using an independent t-test. Two groups were used for comparison. The confidence coefficient is considered as level (P ≤ 0.05).

  Results Top

The demographic characteristic of individuals is shown in [Table 2]. There were no significant differences in the distribution of these variables among the two groups.
Table 2: Demographic characteristic of individuals

Click here to view

In addition, the results of 8 weeks of combined yoga exercise and rehabilitation on the salivary parameters are presented in [Table 3] and [Table 4] in the dependent and independent t-test results, respectively.
Table 3: Dependent t-test for salivary parameters in combined training and cardiac rehabilitation training groups (P ≤0.05)

Click here to view
Table 4: Independent t-test for salivary parameters in combined training and cardiac rehabilitation training groups (P =0.05)

Click here to view

The results showed that the combined intervention of rehabilitation and yoga had a significant effect on salivary cortisol indices (P = 0.028). However, these interventions did not show a significant effect on the alpha-amylase salivary index (P = 0.193). Furthermore, rehabilitation exercise alone had a significant effect on salivary cortisol indices (P = 0.011), but there was no significant difference between groups (P ≥ 0.05).

  Discussion Top

The results of this study showed that long-term rehabilitation training had a significant effect on cortisol changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. In addition, long-term rehabilitation and yoga training had a significant effect on cortisol changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. However, there was no significant difference between the effect of long-term rehabilitation training and rehabilitation and yoga on cortisol changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. The results also showed that long-term rehabilitation training had no significant effect on alpha-amylase changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. Long-term rehabilitation and yoga training had no significant effect on alpha-amylase changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the effects of long-term rehabilitation training and yoga on alpha-amylase changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery.

The findings of the present study disclosed that long-term rehabilitation training and long-term rehabilitation and yoga training had significant effects on coronary artery disease after surgery. However, there was no significant difference between the effect of long-term rehabilitation training and rehabilitation and yoga on cortisol changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. The findings of the present study are consistent with the results of Sullivan et al. (2017), Fujisawa et al., Thirthalli et al., and Tayebeh et al., who showed that yoga practice leads to decreased cortisol levels.[17],[18],[19],[20] Similarly, Sullivan et al. (2017) and Fujisawa et al., in separate studies on female students showed that salivary cortisol significantly decreased after yoga practice. A long-term exposure to long-term psychological stress has been reported to be an independent risk factor for CVD and hypertension.[21],[22] Chronic hyperactivity of the SNS and the HPA axis are two of the major stress-related mechanisms at risk for CVD.[23] Exposure to acute stress stimulates SNS, mediated by the release of catecholamines, norepinephrine, and epinephrine, which exert chronotropic and inotropic effects on the heart, leading to increased heart rate and decreased predischarge period which is for vascular stenosis and hypertension.[24] HPA axis activity is also determined by the release of cortisol. The HPA axis regulates blood pressure mainly through cortisol on sodium uptake and homeostasis volume.[25] In summary, the SNS and HPA axis stimulates multiple blood pressure systems, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Angiotensin II is released which raises blood pressure through direct vasoconstriction, leading to SNS activation and norepinephrine amplification. Chronic stressors affect the balance of these hormone levels, and repeated life stresses over time have been reported to decrease HPA axis sensitivity to single daily and reactive cortisol levels, as well as increasing SNS activity sensitivity during acute stress.[25],[26],[27]

Although the precise mechanism of the effect of yoga exercise on cortisol changes is still unclear; there are different mechanisms to account for changes in the concentration of resting cortisol levels following physical activity, such as the HPA axis, temperature-adrenal axis, central, PH changes, SNS, intensity and type of exercise activity, plasma volume and dehydration changes, individuals' level of physical fitness, and lactate and hypoxia accumulation. Some studies have reported that increased lactic acid during vigorous physical activity may stimulate cortisol hormone secretion by stimulating hypothalamic-adrenal axis chemical receptors.[28] Increased training volume seems to decrease endurance performance resulting in decreased catecholamine secretion and sympathetic activity. Increased cortisol secretion has been reported to be dependent on exercise volume, and high-volume exercise may increase secretion.[29] Physical activity proportional to the intensity of exercise increases arginine vasopressin (AVP) release into the bloodstream, in addition, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and AVP secretion occur synchronously during exercise. One of the mechanisms that increase HPA axis activity is increased plasma lactate levels. Angiotensin II and interleukins that increase during exercise can activate the HPA axis. It is essential for the HPA axis to be activated when activating the message through the afferent nerve. Messages from active muscles and changes in volume and osmolarity increase AVP secretion from the hypothalamus during physical activity, which increases ACTH secretion in the anterior pituitary. ACTH, in turn, increases cortisol secretion from the adrenal glands.[30] Therefore, in the present study, long-term rehabilitation training and long-term rehabilitation and yoga training through an effect on the HPA axis may reduce cortisol levels in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. In general, it has been suggested that the increase in central temperature and the decrease in pH that occur during physical activity are both biochemical reasons to justify changes in cortisol concentration following physical activity. One of the most important factors affecting cortisol secretion is stress. Practicing yoga and especially Shavasana (relaxation) reduces stress and subsequently cortisol hormone depletion. Regarding the lack of significant difference between long-term rehabilitation and yoga training modalities, it is possible that the parameters of both training modes had the same consistency on tone vagina and that the training method did not have a significant difference in cortisol. Some studies have also reported no change or increase in cortisol levels in different populations after exercise.[31],[32]

As can be seen, there have been many studies on the effect of exercise on cortisol changes, which have been reported with respect to differences in the type and intensity of activity, different individuals, and the timing of the inconsistent results. The inconsistency in changes in cortisol activity in previous studies may be due to reliance on distinct sampling methods. Other methodological issues that may result from inconsistency in the findings include the type of exercise style, repetition and duration of sessions, length of training, small sample sizes, and statistical considerations.

The findings of this study showed that long-term rehabilitation and long-term rehabilitation and yoga did not significantly affect alpha-amylase changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the influence of long-term rehabilitation training and rehabilitation and yoga on alpha-amylase changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. Consistent with the findings of the present study, Furtado et al. showed that sitting yoga exercises in elderly women for 14 weeks and 2 times per week had no significant difference in salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol.[33] In the present study, long-term rehabilitation training and long-term rehabilitation and yoga training did not have a significant effect on alpha-amylase changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. Alpha-amylase has been reported to have a circadian rhythm, and the interaction of time of day (morning and evening) and exercise activity had an effect on salivary α-amylase levels;[34] thus, in the present study, this variable could possibly have been affected by different surface responses. Alpha-associated salivary amylase (2004) have presented that salivary alpha-amylase can represent SNS activity.[35]

The sympathetic stimulation appears to increase salivary protein secretion and parasympathetic stimulation decreases salivary concentration and consequently increases salivary fluidity.[36] It has also been reported that salivary alpha-amylase levels are associated with norepinephrine changes that result from physical stimuli (such as exercise) or psychological stimuli.[37] Alpha-amylase works under the function of beta receptors and epinephrine can have an inhibitory effect on salivary secretions, hence the findings of this study are limited by the lack of catecholamine measurement.

In a study examining the effects of yoga on salivary alpha-amylase and cortisol function in prehypertensive adolescents, Sieverdes et al. found that hatha yoga had beneficial changes in blood pressure, a decrease in SNS activity which was associated with a decrease in salivary alpha-amylase, especially in the prehypertensive group.[11] It has also been reported that increased salivary alpha-amylase as a biomarker provides an immediate response to physical activity.[35],[38] It should be noted that this increase is not strongly dependent and has been reported in studies with even 50% aerobic power and short duration.[39] However, there are some contradictions. For example, the effect of the combination of resistance training with 70% maximal repetition and 2-min rest between each period and whole-body vibration on changes in the ratio of free testosterone to cortisol and the activity of the salivary alpha-amylase enzyme in young footballers was investigated. The results showed that salivary alpha-amylase activity was significantly increased.[32] The results of this study emphasize that the hormone secretion in the body requires an optimal level of intensity and duration of training. Alpha-amylase also responds rapidly to a variety of physiological stressors. In another study, two saliva samples were taken before running as a control and one after a thousand meters as a test in young men. Endurance exercise increased salivary alpha-amylase levels.[40] Another possible mechanism of increased salivary alpha-amylase activity following activation is the release of alpha-amylase stored in membrane secretory granules by beta-receptor stimulation through exercise.[41] Some researchers have attributed the increase in salivary alpha-amylase concentration to dehydration and the decrease in salivary flow due to decreased parasympathetic nerve activity.[42] However, salivary alpha-amylase activity decreased significantly in response to training with a treadmill, wheelchair, and stepper (70% to 80% of maximal heart rate).[43] It has also been reported that salivary alpha-amylase levels decreased after 10 weeks of concurrent aerobic exercise in male and female students.[44] Although the high correlation between the change in salivary alpha-amylase activity and reported lactate threshold is probably more salivary alpha-amylase biomarker for measuring psychological stresses, because of individual differences, such as chronic stress, alter its response in most cases. This results in an abnormal distribution of data collected in experimental studies.[45],[46] As can be seen, very little research has been done on the effect of exercise on alpha-amylase, which has been reported due to differences in the type and intensity of activity, different individuals, and timing of the inconsistent results. In the present study, the combined intervention of long-term rehabilitation and long-term rehabilitation and yoga did not have a significant effect on alpha-amylase changes in coronary artery disease patients after surgery. Therefore, other aspects of the exercise and the characteristics of the individuals following these exercises should probably be considered to benefit from it. As he results can be obtained by considering the cardiovascular responses to factors such as health status, age, sex, race, genetics, fitness level, individual differences, and intensity and duration of the exercise, the present study is justified. Most importantly, the variety of cardiac markers and their measurement and sensitivity in different studies can have different results.

  Conclusion Top

In summary, long-term combined rehabilitation exercise and yoga have had a favorable effect on stress factors after coronary artery bypass surgery in cardiovascular patients. Therefore, this type of rehabilitation exercise is recommended for secondary prevention of CVD. However, further research in this area is recommended, with particular regard to intensity, duration of the training, and a number of individuals.

Financial support and sponsorship


Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

  References Top

Gaziano TA, Gaziano JM. Global burden of cardiovascular disease. A Textbook of Cardiovascular Medicine. 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier 2012; 1-20.  Back to cited text no. 1
Hobbs FD. Cardiovascular disease: Different strategies for primary and secondary prevention?Heart 2004;90:1217-23.  Back to cited text no. 2
Rozanski A, Blumenthal JA, Davidson KW, Saab PG, Kubzansky L. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management of psychosocial risk factors in cardiac practice: The emerging field of behavioral cardiology. J Am Coll Cardiol 2005;45:637-51.  Back to cited text no. 3
Larzelere MM, Jones GN. Stress and health. Prim Care 2008;35:839-56.  Back to cited text no. 4
OKeefe JH, Carter MD, Lavie CJ. Primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases: A practical evidence-based approach. Mayo Clin Proc 2009;84:741-57.  Back to cited text no. 5
Malfatto G, Facchini M, Bragato R, Branzi G, Sala L, Leonetti G. Short and long term effects of exercise training on the tonic autonomic modulation of heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J 1996;17:532-8.  Back to cited text no. 6
Curtis BM, OKeefe JH. Autonomic tone as a cardiovascular risk factor: The dangers of chronic fight or flight. Mayo Clin Proc 2002;77:45-54.  Back to cited text no. 7
Besnier F, Labrunée M, Pathak A, Pavy-Le Traon A, Galès C, Sénard JM, et al. Exercise training-induced modification in autonomic nervous system: An update for cardiac patients. Ann Phys Rehabil Med 2017;60:27-35.  Back to cited text no. 8
Ronaldson A, Kidd T, Poole L, Leigh E, Jahangiri M, Steptoe A. Diurnal cortisol rhythm is associated with adverse cardiac events and mortality in coronary artery bypass patients. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2015;100:3676-82.  Back to cited text no. 9
Nater UM, Rohleder N, Gaab J, Berger S, Jud A, Kirschbaum C, et al. Human salivary alpha-amylase reactivity in a psychosocial stress paradigm. Int J Psychophysiol 2005;55:333-42.  Back to cited text no. 10
Sieverdes JC, Mueller M, Gregoski MJ, Brunner-Jackson B, McQuade L, Matthews C, et al. Effects of Hatha yoga on blood pressure, salivary α-amylase, and cortisol function among normotensive and prehypertensive youth. J Altern Complement Med 2014;20:241-50.  Back to cited text no. 11
Christov I, Bortolan G, Simova I. Load dependent changes of cardiac depolarization and repolarization during exercise ECG test. Comp Cardiol 2013;40:547-50.  Back to cited text no. 12
Malathi A, Damodaran A, Shah N, Patil N, Maratha S. Effect of yogic practices on subjective wellbeing. Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2000;44:202-6.  Back to cited text no. 13
Bahremand M, Salehi N, Rai AR, Rezaee M, Raeisei AA. Cardiac rehabilitation program with high-intensity aerobic exercise can reverse diastolic impairment in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. Galen Medical Journal 2014;3:102-8.  Back to cited text no. 14
Yadav A, Singh S, Singh KP, Preeti P. Effect of an integrated approach of yoga therapy on quality of life in coronary artery disease patients. International Journal of Therapeutic Applications 2015;30:7-13.  Back to cited text no. 15
Tripathi PP, Vinay S, Haider J. Effect of yoga on salivary cortisol in medical students. Int J Res Med Sci 2016;4:4995-8.  Back to cited text no. 16
Sullivan M, Carberry A, Evans ES, Hall EE, Nepocatych S. The effects of power and stretch yoga on affect and salivary cortisol in women. J Health Psychol 2019;24:1658-67.  Back to cited text no. 17
Fujisawa A, Ota A, Matsunaga M, Li Y, Kakizaki M, Naito H, et al. Effect of laughter yoga on salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone among healthy university students: A randomized controlled trial. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2018;32:6-11.  Back to cited text no. 18
Thirthalli J, Naveen GH, Rao MG, Varambally S, Christopher R, Gangadhar BN. Cortisol and antidepressant effects of yoga. Indian J Psychiatry 2013;55:S405-8.  Back to cited text no. 19
Nazary Gilannejad T, Gaeini AA, Foroughi Pordanjani A, Omidi N. comparison of the effect of seven weeks of Hata yoga and aerobic exercise on serum cortisol levels, stress, anxiety, and depression in women with type 2 diabetes. Razi J Med Sci 2017;24:81-9.  Back to cited text no. 20
Sparrenberger F, Cichelero FT, Ascoli AM, Fonseca FP, Weiss G, Berwanger O, et al. Does psychosocial stress cause hypertension?A systematic review of observational studies. J Hum Hypertens 2009;23:12-9.  Back to cited text no. 21
Routledge FS, Campbell TS, McFetridge-Durdle JA, Bacon SL. Improvements in heart rate variability with exercise therapy. Can J Cardiol 2010;26:303-12.  Back to cited text no. 22
Ross A, Thomas S. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: A review of comparison studies. J Altern Complement Med 2010;16:3-12.  Back to cited text no. 23
Black MD, Henry R. Hypertension Primer: The Essentials of High Blood Pressure. 2nd ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams Wilkins; 1999.  Back to cited text no. 24
Imumorin IG, Dong Y, Zhu H, Poole JC, Harshfield GA, Treiber FA, et al. A gene-environment interaction model of stress-induced hypertension. Cardiovasc Toxicol 2005;5:109-32.  Back to cited text no. 25
Ali N, Pruessner JC. The salivary alpha amylase over cortisol ratio as a marker to assess dysregulations of the stress systems. Physiol Behav 2012;106:65-72.  Back to cited text no. 26
Snieder H, Harshfield GA, Barbeau P, Pollock DM, Pollock JS, Treiber FA. Dissecting the genetic architecture of the cardiovascular and renal stress response. Biol Psychol 2002;61:73-95.  Back to cited text no. 27
Rudolph DL, McDuleye. Cortisol and effective to exercise. J Sports Sci 2000;16:121-8.  Back to cited text no. 28
Dahl HA, Rodahl K, Astrand PO. Textbook of Work Physiology. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics 2003.  Back to cited text no. 29
Hew-Butler T, Jordaan E, Stuempfle KJ, Speedy DB, Siegel AJ, Noakes TD, et al. Osmotic and nonosmotic regulation of arginine vasopressin during prolonged endurance exercise. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008;93:2072-8.  Back to cited text no. 30
Tartibian B, Yaghoobnezhad F, Saboory E, kheradmand F. The response of lipid profile and serum cortisol to a moderate-intensity aerobic activity session in inactive middle-aged men. Urmia Med J 2013;24:393-404.  Back to cited text no. 31
Fathi M, Asadi M, Adeli OA. The effect of vitamin C intake after a period of exhaustive physical activity program on salivary immunity factors. Journal of Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences 2018;6:217-227.  Back to cited text no. 32
Furtado GE, Uba-Chupel M, Carvalho HM, Souza NR, Ferreira JP, Teixeira AM. Effects of a chair-yoga exercises on stress hormone levels, daily life activities, falls and physical fitness in institutionalized older adults. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2016;24:123-9.  Back to cited text no. 33
Sari-Sarraf V, Tavakoly Z, Amirsasan R. The effect of exercise time per day on acute responses of immunoglobulin A, cortisol, α-amylase and total salivary protein in swimming girls. Metab and Sport Act 2012;2:101-12.  Back to cited text no. 34
Rohleder N, Nater UM, Wolf JM, Ehlert U, Kirschbaum C. Psychosocial stress-induced activation of salivary alpha-amylase: An indicator of sympathetic activity?Ann N Y Acad Sci 2004;1032:258-63.  Back to cited text no. 35
Garrett JR, Ekstrom J, Anderson LC. Effects of autonomic nerve stimulations on salivary parenchyma and protein secretion. Front Oral Biol 1999; 59-79.  Back to cited text no. 36
Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Clark AM, Cook L, Robson PJ, Gleeson M. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise on saliva IgA, total protein and alpha-amylase. J Sports Sci 1999;17:129-34.  Back to cited text no. 37
Cochrane DJ, Legg SJ, Hooker MJ. The short-term effect of whole-body vibration training on vertical jump, sprint, and agility performance. J Strength Cond Res 2004;18:828-32.  Back to cited text no. 38
Azarbayjani MA, Dalvand H, Fatolahi H, Hoseini SA, Farzanegi P, Stannard SR. Responses of salivarycortisol and α-amylase to official competition. J Hum Sport Exerc 2011;6:385-91.  Back to cited text no. 39
Khozaymeh F, Karimian J, Alikhani M, Badrian H R. The effect of endurance exercise on changes of cortisol, alpha-amylase, and salivary acidity. J Islam Den Assoc of Iran 2012;24:128-31.  Back to cited text no. 40
Castle D, Castle A. Intracellular transport and secretion of salivary proteins. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med 1998;9:4-22.  Back to cited text no. 41
Walsh NP, Montague JC, Callow N, Rowlands AV. Saliva flow rate, total protein concentration and osmolality as potential markers of whole body hydration status during progressive acute dehydration in humans. Arch Oral Biol 2004;49:149-54.  Back to cited text no. 42
Azarbayjani MA, Fatolahi H, Rasaee MJ, Peeri M, Babaei R. The effect of exercise mode and intensity of sub-maximal physical activities on salivary testosterone to cortisol ratio and α-amylase in young active males. Int J Exerc Sci 2011;4:283-93.  Back to cited text no. 43
Sahami M, Yektayar M, Ahmadi SH. The effect of balanced aerobic exercise on mood status and salivary alpha-amylase in non-athlete students. J Exerc Physiol and Phys Act 1390;6:671-9.  Back to cited text no. 44
Allgrove JE, Gomes E, Hough J, Gleeson M. Effects of exercise intensity on salivary antimicrobial proteins and markers of stress in active men. J Sports Sci 2008;26:653-61.  Back to cited text no. 45
Nater UM, Rohleder N, Schlotz W, Ehlert U, Kirschbaum C. Determinants of the diurnal course of salivary alpha-amylase. Psychoneuroendocrinology 2007;32:392-401.  Back to cited text no. 46


  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]


    Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
    Access Statistics
    Email Alert *
    Add to My List *
* Registration required (free)  

  In this article
Article Tables

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded271    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal